Employers Should Review Benefits Plans And Other Policies Affecting Employees In Same-Sex Marriages As New IRS Guidance Implementing U.S. Supreme Court's Windsor Decision Becomes Effective Today, September 16, 2013
Here's something that should be at the top of your to do list on this Monday morning: make sure your benefits and other employee policies are in compliance with new guidance from the IRS that becomes effective today relating to federal tax treatment of same-sex marriages under the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in U.S. v. Windsor. In Windsor, the Supreme Court struck down provisions of the Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”), which had prohibited recognition of same-sex marriages under federal law. That decision has several implications for employers, including application of employee leave laws such as the Family Medical Leave Act (“FMLA”), which we blogged about recently.
Since the Windsor ruling, federal agencies have been busy carrying out President Obama’s directive to update regulations and guidance accordingly. On August 29, the IRS issued Revenue Ruling 2013-17 and two sets of FAQs (here and here), advising how the IRS will treat same-sex marriages for federal tax purposes. (Windsor was, after all, a tax case, in which the issue was whether the IRS was allowed to disregard a same-sex marriage for federal estate tax purposes). The guidance becomes effective today, September 16, 2013.
Under that new guidance, the IRS will apply the marriage laws of the state or country in which the marriage was celebrated (‘state of celebration”) to determine if the couple is validly married for federal tax purposes, including tax and other issues relating to employee benefits. Under the new IRS guidance, any same-sex marriage validly entered into in any state or foreign country that allows same-sex marriage will be recognized by the IRS for income, estate, and other tax purposes, even if the couple does not live or work in a state that recognizes the marriage. For example, if a same-sex couple is married in Washington (or Canada), which recognizes same-sex marriage, and then moves to Oregon, which currently does not, the couple will still be considered married for federal tax purposes.
According to the IRS guidance, applying the state of celebration rule will provide certainty and consistency for same-sex couples under federal tax law: “Given our increasingly mobile society, it is important to have a uniform rule of recognition that can be applied with certainty by the Service and taxpayers alike for all Federal tax purposes.” In declining to adopt the state of residence rule for determining married status, the IRS guidance follows most of the other guidance issued by other federal agencies, although the DOL has announced that it will follow the state of residence for FMLA purposes (which, post-Windsor and due to how that statute is drafted, allows an employee to take family leave to care for a same-sex spouse only if the employee actually resides in a state recognizing same-sex marriage).
Employers should immediately review the new IRS guidance and any benefits, family leave, or other policies that may be affected by the changes Windsor brings. Our Howard Bye-Torre has published a detailed Q&A that walks you through the implications of Windsor for tax, employee benefits, and other issues potentially affecting employers.
Stoel Rives Presents Webinar On Employer Group Health Plans After U.S. Supreme Court Decision Upholding "Obamacare"
As everyone who was not on Mars this summer knows, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a surprising and historic decision upholding key provisions of President Obama's Affordable Care Act ("ACA"). To help employers navigate the requirements of the law now that it has the stamp of approval of the Supreme Court, and to provide other updates on developments in federal health care reform, members of the Stoel Rives employee benefit and employment groups have been touring the region with a 90-minute presentation entitled "Health Care Reform After the Supreme Court’s Decision: Group Health Plan Update 2012." The seminars were presented by Stoel Rives attorneys Howard Bye-Torre, Melanie Curtice, Bethany Bacci, Steve Woodland, Matthew Durham, Carolyn Walker, James Dale, Renae Saade, and Tony DeCristoforo in Portland, Seattle, Salt Lake City, Boise, and Anchorage during September and October.
Shameless Plug Alert! Webinar Presentation on October 25, 2012
If you missed the show when it came to your town or are just interested in learning about this complex and evolving area of employee benefits law, there is one more opportunity to attend the seminar via a webinar which will be conducted on Thursday, October 25 at noon, Pacific Time. To RSVP for the webinar and get instructions for attending, please click here.
The seminars reviewed the Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and also some of the ACA's impacts which have already been felt by group health plans and employers, such as the requirement to cover children through age 26. Regulatory developments planned for 2013 are also discussed, including:
- the requirement to report the cost of health care coverage on W-2s;
- the new disclosure document required by the ACA, the Summary of Benefits and Coverage (SBCs);
- required 100% coverage for FDA-approved contraceptive methods for women; and
- the reduction to $2,500 of the maximum amount that an employee can contribute to a health care flexible spending account.
The seminars also discussed the new two federal fees on group health plans for 2013-2018, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute fee and the transitional reinsurance program fee. The seminars concluded with a discussion of the ACA requirements for 2014, including
- the mandate for individuals to have health insurance coverage;
- employer pay-or-play penalties, including new IRS guidance on the definition of “full-time” employees for purposes of the penalties;
- recent IRS guidance on the 90-day maximum waiting period for health plans.
We look forward to seeing you online for the webinar on October 25.
Like most states, Utah’s Worker’s Compensation statute prohibits an employee from recovering disability compensation when “the major contributing cause of the employee’s injury” is the employee’s unauthorized use of alcohol or a controlled substance. See Utah Code Ann. § 34A-2-302(3)(b). If any amount of a controlled substance or its metabolites is found in an injured employee’s system at the time of the injury, the Worker’s Compensation statute presumes that drug use was the major contributing cause of the injury.
An employee can rebut this presumption by:
- challenging the accuracy of the drug test;
- demonstrating that he or she did not actually use a controlled substance;
- providing expert medical opinion suggesting that the level of controlled substance in the employee’s system does not support a finding that drug use was the major contributing cause of the injury; or
- otherwise demonstrating that drug use was not the major contributing cause of the injury.
A Utah appellate court recently weighed in on this issue when it reversed the Utah Labor Commission’s denial of disability compensation to James Barron in Barron v. Labor Commission.
Mr. Barron was severely injured while at work when he stepped backward off the edge of temporary metal decking at a construction site and fell fourteen feet to a concrete floor below. A urine sample taken at the hospital on the day of the accident tested positive for cocaine metabolites. Mr. Barron admitted to sharing a quarter of a gram of cocaine with a friend two days before the accident but presented evidence tending to demonstrate he was not impaired at the time of the accident, including testimony from co-workers and medical personnel who observed Mr. Baron’s conduct on the day of the accident.
Applying the statutory presumption, the Commission ignored Mr. Barron’s evidence of non-impairment and found that drug use was the major contributing cause of his injury. Specifically, the Commission determined that Mr. Baron must demonstrate that “some other force” apart from his own actions caused his injury to overcome the presumption. Following case law from a number of other states with similar statutory schemes, the Utah Court of Appeals reversed the decision of the Commission and, for the first time, clarified that employees are not required to show that their injury was the result of an outside force to overcome the statutory presumption. Rather, evidence of non-impairment at the time of the accident may be used to rebut the presumption and to demonstrate that drug use was not the major contributing cause of injury.
So, when does the use of alcohol or a controlled substance preclude workers' compensation benefits? The answer: almost always, but not when employees can demonstrate that they are not impaired, despite the presence of controlled substances within their systems.
The memorandum issued by President Obama yesterday extends some benefits to the same-sex partners of federal employees, including access to a government insurance program that pays for long-term conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and to sick leave to care for a sick same-sex partner or a non-biological child. However, the extension did not provide eligibility for health care to same-sex partners, drawing protest from gay activists.
Why did President Obama stop short? The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), the 1996 federal law that, among other things, defines marriage as a legal union exclusively between one man and one woman. According to President Obama's press statement, the White House determined that DOMA prevented an extension of all benefits to same-sex partners, including health care. In the statement, President Obama called on Congress to repeal DOMA and signaled an intend to extend all benefits to same-sex partners if and when that happens.
President Obama's actions will clearly impact Federal agencies and their employees, but what effect does it have on private employers? For now, none - the memorandum only applies to the federal government. However, it does signal a growing trend in mandating the extension of employee benefits to same-sex partners. States that recognize same-sex marriage generally require private employers to extend benefits to same-sex spouses; other states that do not recognize same-sex marriages but do recognize same-sex partnerships (such as Oregon, Washington and California) may require private employers to extend benefits to same-sex partners under certain circumstances. Private employers should consult legal counsel about their possible obligation to provide such benefits.
The New York Times is reporting that President Obama will sign an order later today extending some -- but not all -- job benefits to the same-sex partners of federal employees. According to reports, the order will come short of providing full health care coverage to same-sex partners. Check back in with the Stoel Rives World of Employment for details as they emerge.
Under the current tax code, employer-provided health care benefits for employees, their spouses and dependent children are exempt from federal income and payroll taxes; however, health care benefits provided to unmarried domestic partners are subject to both payroll tax (for the employee) and to income tax (for the domestic partner beneficiary). But if passed, the proposed Tax Equity for Health Plan Beneficiaries Act introduced last month in Congress would end the taxation of health care benefits of both same- and opposite-sex domestic partners.
The Act was introduced in the House of Representatives by Rep. Jim McDermott (D-Wash.) and in the Senate by Sen. Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) A similar bill was introduced last year, but failed to gain enough traction to make it out of committee. The bill might have more potential this time around, with a friendlier climate in both Congress and the White House.
To learn more about the tax laws the Act may impact, check out this article on the taxation of domestic partner benefits from the Human Rights Campaign. The Stoel Rives World of Employment will pay attention to this and other important Labor and Employment legislation, so check back for updates!
Today the U.S. Supreme Court held that an employer does not violate the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) if it pays pension benefits based in part on pre-PDA calculations that gave employees less retirement credit for pregnancy leave than for other types of medical leave. Click here to read the Court's decision in AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen.
The employer in Hulteen, AT&T, based its pension calculations on a seniority system based on years of service minus uncredited leave time. AT&T gave less credit for pregnancy absences than it did for other types of medical leaves. When the PDA was enacted in 1978, AT&T replaced its old plan a plan that provided the same service credit for pregnancy leave; it did not, however, make any retroactive adjustments for pre-PDA pregnancy leaves. Some female employees, including the plaintiff Hulteen, received less credit for pre-PDA pregnancy leaves, and therefore received smaller pensions.
The lower courts held that this violated Title VII; however, the Supreme Court reversed 7-2. Because AT&T's pension payments accord with the terms of a bona fide, non-discriminatory seniority system, they are insulated from challenge under Title VII §703(h). (The system was considered non-discriminatory because, prior to enactment of the PDA, an accrual rule limiting the seniority credit for time taken for pregnancy leave did not unlawfully discriminate onthe basis of sex.)
The Department of Labor's Employee Benefits Security Administration has just released a salvo of new forms and information on the COBRA subsidy. Click on the titles below to download:
- COBRA Premium Reduction Fact Sheet
- Job Loss Poster (8½" x 11")
- Loss Poster (11" x 17")
- Flyer for Employers • Flyer for Employees
- COBRA Continuation Health Coverage FAQs for Employees
- COBRA Continuation Health Coverage FAQs for Employers
- IRS Information on COBRA Premium Reduction
- DOL Information Related to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
Keep watching the Stoel Rives World of Employment for more information on the COBRA subsidy!
We have more information for you on the provisions of the stimulus bill affecting the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). First, the Employee Benefits Security Administration (part of the Department of Labor) has published this website with information on COBRA continuation coverage assistance. The Web site also includes a "Subscribe To This Page" link, allowing users to receive e-mail updates when new items are posted. Second, in case you didn't receive it, Stoel Rives sent out this client alert last week, with more detailed information on the COBRA assistance program.
Among the provisions of the new stimulus package signed by President Obama are subsides for unemployed workers continuing their health care benefits through the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). The key points of the package are:
- Who is eligible? Employees who have been involuntarily terminated between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 with annual incomes less than $125,000 (single) or $250,000 (couples) are eligible for the COBRA premium assistance. Qualified individuals, who initially decline COBRA coverage, would be given an additional 60 days after they receive notice of the special election period to elect to take advantage of the subsidy.
- How much is the subsidy? Eligible employees may receive a 65 percent subsidy toward their health care premium for up to nine (9) months. The Treasury Department will provide employers (or health plans, if they administer COBRA benefits) a credit against payroll taxes to cover the cost of the subsidy. The subsidy terminates upon any offer of new health care coverage through an employer or with Medicare eligibility.
- Are there new notice requirements? Of course! COBRA notices must include information on the availability of the premium assistance. Model notices from the Department of Labor are due 30 days after enactment (so by March 18, 2009). The Act requires employers to notify all plan participants of the new subsidies within 60 days of enactment (or by April 17, 2009). We'll post the model notice as soon as it is available.
- When does the subsidy take effect? March, 2009.
For more information on COBRA, check out this page from the Department of Labor.
The U.S. Supreme Court opened its 2008-2009 term on October 6 with six labor and employment law cases on its docket. (For docket information and questions presented, click on the name of the case).
- Locke v. Karass: may a public employee union may charge nonmembers for representational costs for litigation expenses incurred by the international union on behalf of other bargaining units?
- Kennedy v. Plan Administrator for DuPont Savings & Investment Plan: is a qualified domestic relations order (QDRO) is the only valid way under ERISA for a divorcing spouse to waive his or her right to the other spouse's pension benefits?
- Crawford v. Metro. Gov't of Nashville & Davidson County: Is an employee who cooperates with an employer-initiated investigation into alleged unlawful discrimination protected by Title VII's anti-retaliation provisions?
- Ysursa v. Pocatello Education Ass'n: does an Idaho law that prohibits local government employers from allowing employee payroll deductions for political activities violate the First Amendment free speech rights of unions and their members?
- 14 Penn Plaza LLC v. Pyett: do employees covered by a collective bargaining agreement which providies that statutory employment discrimination claims must be pursued through the contractual grievance and arbitration procedures have a right for a court to decide their discrimination claims?
- AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen: must an employer give full service credit for purposes of calculating retirement benefits for pregnancy leaves taken before the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 if the plan gave full credit for other types of temporary disability leaves?
Some of these cases (such as the Penn Plaza and Crawford cases) have the potential to make significant changes in existing law. Stay tuned to the Stoel Rives World of Employment for developments as they occur!
Yesterday, the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate both passed laws that will require employee health plans to offer the same benefits for mental illness as they do for other medical conditions.
The House approved H.R. 6983 by a 376-47 vote, and the Senate passed another version, H.R. 6049 (a tax and energy bill containing the mental health parity legislation as a rider), by a 93-2 vote. There are some minor discrepancies between the two versions (such as how it will be paid for) to be worked out, but that should not prevent the bill from becoming law. The Bush administration has stated that it supports the Senate version of the law.
If Congress can iron out the differences before it adjourns for the year, the bill will go into effect January 1, 2008. Keep an eye on the Stoel Rives World of Employment for more developments.