The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued an interim final rule and request for comments regarding procedures for handling employee whistleblower complaints under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Section 1558. This part of the ACA added a new Section 18c to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which protects employees from retaliation for exercising certain rights under the ACA, including (1) receiving a federal tax credit or subsidy to purchase insurance through the employer or a future health insurance exchange, (2) reporting a violation of consumer protection rules under the ACA (which, for instance, prohibit denial of health coverage based on preexisting conditions and lifetime limits on coverage), and (3) assisting or participating in a proceeding under Section 1558.
The interim final rule states the time frames and procedures for bringing a whistleblower complaint under Section 18c and covers the investigation, hearing, and appeals processes. An employee has 180 days from the date of the alleged retaliation to bring a whistleblower complaint to the Secretary of Labor. Where a violation is found, remedies can include reinstatement, compensatory damages, back pay, and reasonable costs and expenses (including attorneys’ fees). If the employee brought the complaint in bad faith, an employer may recover up to $1,000 in reasonable attorneys’ fees.
The bar for an employee bringing such a complaint is relatively low, and the bar for an employer defending against the complaint is relatively high. The employee must only have a subjective, good-faith, reasonable belief that the conduct alleged in the complaint violates the whistleblower protections; the employee need not prove that the conduct was an actual violation of law. The conduct complained of must only be a contributing factor in an adverse employment decision for the employee to make his or her case. The employer must then demonstrate through clear and convincing evidence that it would have taken the same adverse action without the protected activity.
Each party has 20 days after filing the complaint to submit a position statement and supporting documents, and can also request a meeting to present its position to OSHA. OSHA has 60 days from the filing of the complaint to investigate and issue written findings and, if a violation is found, a preliminary order providing relief to the employee. There is a process to challenge and appeal OSHA’s written findings and order. There is also a process for an employee to file a complaint in federal court either within 90 days after the employee receives OSHA’s findings, or if no final agency order is issued within 210 days of the filing of the complaint.
For more information, see the DOL fact sheet, which describes how to file a complaint. If you have comments on this interim final rule, they must be submitted within 60 days of the rule’s publication in the Federal Register (Feb. 27, 2013). Comments may be submitted electronically at the eRulemaking portal.
In 2014, Washington health care employers will be required to comply with the Department of Labor and Industries’ (“L&I’s”) new Hazardous Drugs Rule. While today that may seem like the distant future, savvy employers will take time in 2013 to implement measures in compliance with the new rule before the deadline to do so creeps up.
What is the Hazardous Drugs Rule?
The Hazardous Drugs Rule is designed to protect employees of health care facilities in Washington from occupational exposure to hazardous drugs. For purposes of the Rule, the term “health care facilities” includes not only hospitals and clinics, but also pharmacies, nursing homes, home health care agencies, veterinary practices, and some research laboratories. The Rule’s protections extend beyond medical providers, pharmacists, and the like to encompass all employees who may be exposed to hazardous drugs. For example, a janitorial employee’s duties may include disposal of discarded medications or similar exposure to hazardous drugs.
Hazardous drugs include any drug identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety (“NIOSH”) in its list of antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in health care settings, which can be found at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2012-150/. In addition, hazardous drugs can include any other drug that can damage DNA or cause cancer, birth defects, fertility problems, or organ toxicity at low doses. Common examples of drugs considered to be hazardous under the Rule are chemotherapy drugs, birth control pills, and certain anti-depressants.
What is Required Under the Rule?
The Rule requires affected employers to establish – with input from employees – a written hazardous drugs control program by January 1, 2014. The written program must contain three main elements: (1) an inventory of all hazardous drugs in the workplace; (2) a hazard assessment for those identified drugs; and (3) hazardous drugs policies and procedures. The policies and procedures are expected to cover issues such as use of personal protective equipment, safe handling practices, engineering controls, cleaning, waste handling, spill control, and employee training. The employee training must be implemented by no later than July 1, 2014.
In addition, employers are required to install ventilated cabinets for handling and preparation of hazardous drugs where appropriate. This requirement does not take effect until January 1, 2015.
Is Medical Surveillance Required?
As of now, medical surveillance of impacted employees is not required by the Hazardous Drugs Rule. There is a good chance, however, that a medical surveillance requirement will be added to the Rule.
L&I initially included medical surveillance in its proposed rule. While L&I removed that requirement from the final Hazardous Drugs Rule, it indicated its intent to revisit the issue once NIOSH updated its medical surveillance guidelines. On November 19, 2012, NIOSH issued its recommendation for medical surveillance of workers exposed to hazardous drugs. Specifically, NIOSH recommends that baseline clinical evaluations be provided to exposed employees, followed by periodic health questionnaires and follow-up evaluations for workers who experience health changes or who have acute exposure to hazardous drugs. L&I is currently evaluating whether to add similar requirements to its Hazardous Drugs Rule. If it does so, Washington will become the first state to require a medical surveillance program associated with exposure to hazardous drugs in the health care setting.
Stoel Rives Presents Webinar On Employer Group Health Plans After U.S. Supreme Court Decision Upholding "Obamacare"
As everyone who was not on Mars this summer knows, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a surprising and historic decision upholding key provisions of President Obama's Affordable Care Act ("ACA"). To help employers navigate the requirements of the law now that it has the stamp of approval of the Supreme Court, and to provide other updates on developments in federal health care reform, members of the Stoel Rives employee benefit and employment groups have been touring the region with a 90-minute presentation entitled "Health Care Reform After the Supreme Court’s Decision: Group Health Plan Update 2012." The seminars were presented by Stoel Rives attorneys Howard Bye-Torre, Melanie Curtice, Bethany Bacci, Steve Woodland, Matthew Durham, Carolyn Walker, James Dale, Renae Saade, and Tony DeCristoforo in Portland, Seattle, Salt Lake City, Boise, and Anchorage during September and October.
Shameless Plug Alert! Webinar Presentation on October 25, 2012
If you missed the show when it came to your town or are just interested in learning about this complex and evolving area of employee benefits law, there is one more opportunity to attend the seminar via a webinar which will be conducted on Thursday, October 25 at noon, Pacific Time. To RSVP for the webinar and get instructions for attending, please click here.
The seminars reviewed the Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and also some of the ACA's impacts which have already been felt by group health plans and employers, such as the requirement to cover children through age 26. Regulatory developments planned for 2013 are also discussed, including:
- the requirement to report the cost of health care coverage on W-2s;
- the new disclosure document required by the ACA, the Summary of Benefits and Coverage (SBCs);
- required 100% coverage for FDA-approved contraceptive methods for women; and
- the reduction to $2,500 of the maximum amount that an employee can contribute to a health care flexible spending account.
The seminars also discussed the new two federal fees on group health plans for 2013-2018, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute fee and the transitional reinsurance program fee. The seminars concluded with a discussion of the ACA requirements for 2014, including
- the mandate for individuals to have health insurance coverage;
- employer pay-or-play penalties, including new IRS guidance on the definition of “full-time” employees for purposes of the penalties;
- recent IRS guidance on the 90-day maximum waiting period for health plans.
We look forward to seeing you online for the webinar on October 25.